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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

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INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY,                               193
valley, Acacia modesta, Zizyphus Lotus, and a spiny Celastrus,
which west of the Jelam form the great mass of the tropical
vegetation^ Uf tropical fruits, the orange and plantain are
cultivated in all the hot valleys of the Panjab Himalaya} and
the mango extends to the Indus, and perhaps beyond it. The
pomegranate, both wild and cultivated, is abundant in the sub*
tropical jungles, even as far west as Lower Kishtwar.
In the temperate zone of the outer Western Himalaya, the
commonest trees of the drier exposures are RJiadodendron ur-
boreum, Andromeda ovalifolia, Quercus incana and dilatata;
and the prevailing shrubs asc species of Berberis, Rosa, Spi-
raa, Rubvs* All of these occur throughout the whole of the
chain from Kumaon to the Indus, but to the westward they
seem restricted within gradually narrower limits, and in the
extreme west are found only in moist and shady woods, which
in Kumaon and Gftrhwal they carefully avoid. To the east-
ward they are accompanied by many other trees which gra-
dually disappear: thus Quercus lanata and Betula cylindro-
stachya are not found west of the Ganges, and Carpinus vi-
minea has not been observed west of thc.Satlej.
In the valleys of the temperate zone and on the lower
slopes of the hills the forest is usually very different: Celtis,
Alnus? Populus ciliata, Prunus Padus, d&sculus, and tivo spe-
cies of Acer are common trees as far west as .the Jclam, or
perhaps the Indus. Most of them indeed seem to occur in
the humid forests of the Hindu Kush, north of Jelalabad.
Benthamia flonbunda and a Hydrangea extend from the East-
ern Himalayas far as the Satlej, but have not been found
further we&t, and many species of Lauracea advance to the
The influence of climate is much more perceptible on the
herbaceous vegetation of the temperate region, and especially
on the annual plaats which spring up during the rainy season,
than on the trees and larger shrubs, which may be presumed
to have greater powers-of resistance. Hence the Scitammea,
epiphytical and terrestrial OwMdea*, Ararew, Cyrtardracea*,